The universe subsists by an attunement of opposite tensions. Also: to God all things are right, but people think some things are wrong, some right. Said there is no change, everything is one being. So there is only one being. Melissus of Samos was a disciple of Parmenides, but made a change: being cannot be spatially finite as Parmenides said, for then beyond being would be nothing, and being would be bounded by nothing.
That which is limited by nothing is not limited, but is infinite. Zeno also defended Parmenides, constructed some paradoxes to prove him right, e.
For the answer see Aristotle, Physics 7. Not too likely. Probably born around BC. He is often charged with being a pantheist, i. He said the following things about God: The whole of God sees, the whole perceives, the whole hears, but with no effort he sets all things in motion by mind and thought. He always stays in the same place, and does not move at all, nor it is suitable that he should move from one place to another.gambbetlitaci.cf
Signs in the Dust
The charge of pantheism rests on a statement of Aristotle in Metaphysics 1. He also said that the poets attributed many immoral things to the gods. He was concerned with this. If one believes in the old gods, and then becomes a teenager, he may think: I think I will go and imitate Zeus. Plato and others too had similar fears. Mediators between Heraclitus and Parmenides: They tried to find a middle position between saying no change, and all is change.
It is debated, but it seems he tried to reconcile ideas of Parmenides with facts of change and motion. He abandons the notion of a single world-stuff and says there are four elements: earth, air, fire, water. Previous philosophers had proposed air, water, or fire.
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He kept these, added earth. He explains process by two things which he calls Strife and Love. They are forces, but material. Love is the unifier, Strife the divider. There are four periods in history: 1 Love is supreme, Strife is outside. All elements are mixed, nothing distinguishable from anything else. The four elements are not distinct and separate.
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Love is out. We note a resemblance here to the idea of Heraclitus that the state of the universe subsists on an attunement of opposite tensions. He came to Athens in , perhaps with the invasion of Xerxes of Persia, was probably about 20 then. He was the first philosopher to settle in Athens, stayed perhaps 30 years. Became a friend and teacher of Pericles. Was accused by the political opponents of Pericles about on charges of being pro-Persian, irreligious.
He had taught the sun was a red-hot stone, and the moon was made of earth. So we see that he suffered from the problem we spoke of above in saying we explain things either by the gods or by natural causes. We should say both. He escaped, went back to Ionia, west coast of Asia Minor, settled at Lampsacus, lived about 25 years.
What he taught is not too clear.
One fragment says that nothing comes into being or passes away, but there is a mingling and a separation of the things that are. He rejected the four element idea of Empedocles, saying the four elements were mixtures of many qualitatively different parts. He said that in the beginning all kinds were mingled together, were infinite both in number and in smallness.
In everything there is a portion of everything. His special attempt at a contribution was the principle of nous, mind. Only nous would be completely separate from anything else. All nous is alike. Nous is the finest and purest of all things, and has all knowledge about everything and the greatest power. The function of nous seems to be to start the rotatory movement or vortex going. Aristotle, in Metaphysics A. Elsewhere he makes anything rather than nous the cause.
Plato in Phaedo 97 b 8 has Socrates saying he at first had high hopes when he heard of nous, but was disappointed on following through. But together they developed the atomic theory. Leucippus was a contemporary of Melissos. Democritus was born later, about BC.
We can explain the world by supposing two things, atoms and the void. By atoms they meant the "uncuttable", i. This has nothing whatsoever to do with the modern concept of an atom, except the word. So they are in no sense forerunners of our atomic physics. We will number steps to facilitate Comment: 1 There were always atoms falling in the void. Since atoms have been falling for infinite ages, there has been time for many combinations to fall together and then fall apart.
Our world just fell together, and will fall apart, and there will be nothing left: annihilation. Matter needed a cause. That comes about only by gravity in which every large body in the universe attracts every other large body with a force proportioned to their masses and in inverse proportion to the distance. So the Epicureans gladly took on this idea. They made pleasure the goal of life. But to fear a possible accounting to gods could hinder that. So they welcomed annihilation. It was popularized in Rome by Lucretius, in first century B. In book 3 he gives more than a dozen "proofs" for no survival.
At the end he says life is like a banquet. Our knowledge of him depends on two sources, the works of Plato, and the Memorabilia by Xenophon. Still further, there is debate on whether Plato in all dialogues was faithful to what Socrates really held, or was he faithful only in the earlier dialogues, in which often no answer is reached.
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