Duel Decision


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It has also been linked with economics via prospect theory and behavioral economics , and increasingly in sociology through cultural analysis.

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The foundations of dual process theory likely comes from William James. He believed that there were two different kinds of thinking: associative and true reasoning. James theorized that empirical thought was used for things like art and design work. For James, images and thoughts would come to mind of past experiences, providing ideas of comparison or abstractions. He claimed that associative knowledge was only from past experiences describing it as "only reproductive".

James believed that true reasoning was useful for "unprecedented situations" in which using reasoning to overcome obstacles such as navigation could be overcome with reasoning power of being able to use a map.

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There are various dual process theories that were produced after William James's work. Dual process models are very common in the study of social psychological variables, such as attitude change. Examples include Petty and Cacioppo's elaboration likelihood model explained briefly below and Chaiken's heuristic systematic model.

According to these models, persuasion may occur after either intense scrutiny or extremely superficial thinking.

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In cognitive psychology , attention and working memory have also been conceptualized as relying on two distinct processes. The following just show a glimpse into the variety that can be found. Jonathan Evans suggested dual process theory in In his theory, there are two distinct types of processes: heuristic processes and analytic processes. He suggested that during heuristic processes, an individual chooses which information is relevant to the current situation. Relevant information is then processed further whereas irrelevant information is not. Following the heuristic processes come analytic processes.

During analytic processes, the relevant information that is chosen during the heuristic processes is then used to make judgments about the situation. Richard E. Petty and John Cacioppo proposed a dual process theory focused in the field of social psychology in Their theory is called the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In their theory, there are two different routes to persuasion in making decisions. The first route is known as the central route and this takes place when a person is thinking carefully about a situation, elaborating on the information they are given, and creating an argument.

This route occurs when an individual's motivation and ability are high. The second route is known as the peripheral route and this takes place when a person is not thinking carefully about a situation and uses shortcuts to make judgments. This route occurs when an individual's motivation or ability are low. Steven Sloman produced another interpretation on dual processing in He believed that associative reasoning takes stimuli and divides it into logical clusters of information based on statistical regularity. He proposed that how you associate is directly proportional to the similarity of past experiences, relying on temporal and similarity relations to determine reasoning rather than an underlying mechanical structure.

The other reasoning process in Sloman's opinion was of the Rule-based system. The system functioned on logical structure and variables based upon rule systems to come to conclusions different from that of the associative system. He also believed that the Rule-based system had control over the associative system, though it could only suppress it. Daniel Kahneman provided further interpretation by differentiating the two styles of processing more, calling them intuition and reasoning in Intuition or system 1 , similar to associative reasoning, was determined to be fast and automatic, usually with strong emotional bonds included in the reasoning process.

Kahneman said that this kind of reasoning was based on formed habits and very difficult to change or manipulate. Reasoning or system 2 was slower and much more volatile, being subject to conscious judgments and attitudes. Fritz Strack and Roland Deutsch proposed another dual process theory focused in the field of social psychology in According to their model, there are two separate systems: the reflective system and the impulsive system.


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In the reflective system, decisions are made using knowledge and the information that is coming in from the situation is processed. On the other hand, in the impulsive system, decisions are made using schemes and there is little or no thought required. Ron Sun proposed a dual process model of learning both implicit learning and explicit learning. The model named CLARION re-interpreted voluminous behavioral data in psychological studies of implicit learning and skill acquisition in general. The resulting theory is two-level and interactive, based on the idea of the interaction of one-shot explicit rule learning i.

Using a somewhat different approach, Allan Paivio has developed a dual-coding theory of information processing. According to this model, cognition involves the coordinated activity of two independent, but connected systems, a nonverbal system and a verbal system that is specialized to deal with language. The nonverbal system is hypothesized to have developed earlier in evolution.

Both systems rely on different areas of the brain. Paivio has reported evidence that nonverbal, visual images are processed more efficiently and are approximately twice as memorable. Additionally, the verbal and nonverbal systems are additive, so one can improve memory by using both types of information during learning.

Examples of using dual process theory

The dual-process accounts of reasoning posits that there are two systems or minds in one brain. The theory of two distinct kinds of reasoning has been around for as long as documentations about theories of reasoning go. The current theory is that there are two distinctively separate cognitive systems underlying thinking and reasoning and that these different systems were developed through evolution. The systems have multiple names by which they can be called, as well as many different properties.

Differences between System 1 and System 2 [14]. Bargh reconceptualized the notion of an automatic process by breaking down the term "automatic" into four components: awareness, intentionality, efficiency, and controllability.

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One way for a process to be labeled as automatic is for the person to be unaware of it. There are three ways in which a person may be unaware of a mental process: they can be unaware of the presence of the stimulus subliminal , how the stimulus is categorized or interpreted unaware of the activation of stereotype or trait constructs , or the effect the stimulus has on the person's judgments or actions misattribution.

Another way for a mental process to be labeled as automatic is for it to be unintentional. Intentionality refers to the conscious "start up" of a process. An automatic process may begin without the person consciously willing it to start. The third component of automaticity is efficiency. Efficiency refers to the amount of cognitive resources required for a process. An automatic process is efficient because it requires few resources. The fourth component is controllability, referring to the person's conscious ability to stop a process.

An automatic process is uncontrollable, meaning that the process will run until completion and the person will not be able to stop it.

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Bargh conceptualizes automaticity as a component view any combination awareness, intention, efficiency, and control as opposed to the historical concept of automaticity as an all-or-none dichotomy. System 2 is evolutionarily recent and specific to humans. It is also known as the explicit system, the rule-based system, the rational system, [12] or the analytic system.

It is domain-general, performed in the central working memory system. Because of this, it has a limited capacity and is slower than System 1 which correlates it with general intelligence. It is known as the rational system because it reasons according to logical standards. The dual process has impact on social psychology in such domains as stereotyping, categorization, and judgment.

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Especially, the study of automaticity and of implicit in dual process theories has the most influence on a person's perception. People usually perceive other people's information and categorize them by age, gender, race, or role. According to Neuberg and Fiske a perceiver who receives a good amount of information about the target person then will use their formal mental category Unconscious as a basis for judging the person. When the perceiver is distracted, the perceiver has to pay more attention to target information Conscious.

Attitude can also be activated spontaneously by the object.


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John Bargh 's study offered an alternative view, holding that essentially all attitudes, even weak ones are capable of automatic activation. Whether the attitude is formed automatically or operates with effort and control, it can still bias further processing of information about the object and direct the perceivers' actions with regard to the target. According to Shelly Chaiken , heuristic processing is the activation and application of judgmental rules and heuristics are presumed to be learned and stored in memory. It is used when people are making accessible decisions such as "experts are always right" system 1 and systematic processing is inactive when individuals make effortful scrutiny of all the relevant information which requires cognitive thinking system 2.


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